Mesothelioma Cancer (Clinical Trials, Treatment, Stages and Pathophysiology)

Palliative care is provided by the World Health Organization (WHO), quality of life and a better perspective to go through a deadly disease. Palliative effects are offered to people in secundáias stages, chemotherapy and surgery or to help people who do not want aggressive treatment. Aggressive treatment of mesothelioma is not an appropriate treatment for Dodas people with the disease, especially for people with very age. In this situation palliative treatments are recommended, not only to make this the case, but tatambém for those who already have no more healing possibilities.

Palliative treatment will help the patient get through those times without further suffering. Palliative treatment involves in reducing the pain caused by mesothelioma-cancer and provide a better quality of life not only for the patient and his family.

Two very common symptoms of Mesothelioma and they use palliatives are:

- Pleural effusion
- Wound Dissemination

Pleural effusion is often acute and causes shortness of breath for the patient to feel ter is necessary to make a drainage. The procedure for a patient having problems with pleural effusion never again suffer another stroke is pleurodesis. In this procedure one sclerosing agent is used to scrape or chip away the pleural surface to prevent adhesion. This procedure prevents most leakage eliminating the pleural space where liquid may accumulate. Talc powder appears to be more effective with a cucesso rate of almost 100%. Before depositing talc endow the liquid must be removed from around the lung.
Mesothelioma Cancer (Clinical Trials, Treatment, Stages and Pathophysiology)

The second measure of palliative care is radiation along with areas along with invasive procedures like biopsy tracking needles, incisions and toracospia chest drainage.

Beyond these early controls, other common symptoms controlled with palliative care include:

Ache
Dyspnoea
Tiredness
Dry mouth
Loss of appetite
Gastrointestinal problems
Skin problems
Anxiety and depression

Mesothelioma Clinical Trials


The purpose of the studies by different research centers and seek new treatments for various diseases such as Mesothelioma. These studies are for different reasons such as finding a palliative for diseases or prevent the onset and even to some illness through treatment with new drugs. In the testo below we show some of the ways that these studies can be divided.

– The first stage of these studies are summarized in clinical studies. These first tests are performed in the laboratory using samples to check the effectiveness of the destruction of sélulas Mesothelioma-cancer. These exanmes are conducted in authorized centers with limited number of participants in order to have an effective control and improve control of the results. The main reason for these studies in Phase I is to establish the dose and side effects of these experimental drugs during their study. When it is identified that this drug has effect on the cancer it is used in phase II

In Phase II tests are still carried out tests to verify if they are safe for human use and the procedures for their use in various types of mesothelioma-cancer. These new phase II studies are conducted with participants and a larger amount of research centers.

In Phase III new treatments are compared with drugs already used and even merged for their effects in various types of cancer, mesothelioma. At this stage the number of participants of this new treatment increases rather making use of the new drug and compared the effects of previous treatment so that they can identify possible positive or negative effects. One of the main reasons of the Phase III studies is to verify that the new drugs are having an effect against Mesothelioma-cancer, how long it acts on patients and the effects on the tumor. And not least how the drug affects the quality of life of patients.

If you are interested in participating in clinical studies Mesothelioma see your doctor he can guide you on how to make.

Treatment of Mesothelioma (surgery, chemotherapy)


Among the surgeries for removal of the Neumonectomia Extrapleural Mesothelioma is the most radical, because it implies the removal of the lungs, pleura, pericardium and part of the diaphragm. The pericardium and the pleura are reconstrudas during surgery using material from the patient’s own body. The patient to volunteer for this surgery for many tests such as lung and heart tests so that it is able to achieve it.

Chemotherapy


Chemotherapy is used soon after Mesothelioma surgery to remove all the cancer cell left over after surgery. They are drugs used to increase the combined effect. Chemotherapy may also be used as a palliative and relieve the pain felt due to disease progression. To make use of chemotherapy may be by oral, intravenous, intramuscular or directly at the pleural and peritoneal cavity. Below lists the drugs most commonly used in this type of treatment for people possão do research on his compositions:

Pemetrexed (Alimta)
Cisplatin (Platinol)
Carboplatin (Paraplatin)
Gemcitabine (Gemzar)
Doxorubicin (Adriamycin)
Mitomycin
Raltitrexed (Tomudex)
Vinorelbine (Navelbine)

The various pharmaceutical companies are always studying new drugs so that doctors are always well informed of new drugs and ways to use them in mesothelioma treatments

Radiotherapy


Radiation therapy is the frequent use of x-ray high energy to kill the cancer cell before and after surgery in order to reduce or suppress tumors. After surgery may be recommended to high-energy X-ray parallel to help eliminate the Mesothelioma cells and treat as palliative for pain caused by cancer. After studies was identified that radiotherapy can be used in the prevention of mesothelioma.

There are several treatment options for Mesothelioma. There are several factors according to age, health, cancer  stage, personal  desires  and  cells  and  their aggressiveness. There is a prepared team to guide diagnosed patients of Mesothelioma  and  guide patients  according to the type of cancer stage. Part of this team of experts a medical oncologist, radiation oncologist, specialist in palliative care, Espedialista in Pain Management and a nursing team.

The diagnosis of Mesothelioma patient should discuss widely on the subject before making a decision about treatment.  Identifying  the  risk,  treatment  effects  possible,  diagnosis,  side  effects, and the life after treatment.

First form of treatment – (Surgery)


There are two ways to treat Mesothelioma with Pleurectomy and Neumonectomia Extrapleural surgery. This type  of  surgery  is  very  difficult  and due  to its complexity, few centers offer. This type of surgery is to remove the greatest  amount  Mesothelioma- cancer,  leaving  remnants  microscopes. There secondary forms of treatment after the surgery. Soon after the  tumor  resection and only be the minimum mesothelioma and secondary treatment done to remove the remaining cancer cells is chemotherapy and radiotherapy.

The  method  unless radical  surgery is pleurectomy / decorticacion performing only the removal of the pleura with no removal  of  parts  of  the lung. Depending on the extent of Mesothelioma may have to remove parts of other organs such as the diaphragm, pericardium etc … This type of treatment has a shorter recovery time.

Mesothelioma Stages


Knowing the mesothelioma stages is one of the fundamental factors so that the doctor can develop   a   treatment   method.   The   most   commonly   used   parameter   is   the TNM System (International Estadificación). This system classifies Mesothelioma (cancer) in various stages.

Tumos Primary (T) – Lymph Nodes (G) – Metastases (M)

Peritoneal  Mesothelioma  does not have a set comparison system. This type of cancer. The person diagnosed with peritoneal mesothelioma is classified according to the TNM and cancer in general  or  this  tumor  mass  (mass Low moderate tumoralou). The TNM system is difficult to be interpreted by people without the knowledge of it. The low will present a simplified version of this system:

First Phase – Mesothelioma can affect the right side, left or pleura and may travel to the lungs, pericardium and diaphragm all on the same side. Parts like the lymph nodes are not affected.

Second Phase – In this phase the Mesothelioma- cancer can spread to the lymph nodes near the lungs. This type of Mesothelioma can spread through the lungs, pericardium and diaphragm.

Third Phase – Mesothelioma insvadiu entire chest wall, muscles, heart, ribs, muscles, esophagus and other organs.

Phase Four – Mesothelioma has spread to the lymph nodes at the back side of the primary tumor chest, extending toward the abdominal cavity and neck.

Mesothelioma and Pathophysiology


The mesothelium is composed of a single layer of flat cells that form the cuboidal epithelium lining   the   serous   cavities   of   the   human   body,  including peritoneal, pericardial and pleural cavities.   The   deposition   of   asbestos   fibers   in  the  lung parenchyma may ultimately result in penetration   of   the   visceral   pleura   from where the fiber can then be transported to the pleural surface, thus leading to the formation of malignant mesothelial plates.
           
Peritoneal   mesothelioma development processes remain unresolved, although it has been proposed that lung asbestos fibers are transported to the abdomen and associated organs via the lymphatic   system. There is evidence that smaller particles can be more dangerous than the larger fibers. remaining suspended in the air where they are inhaled and penetrate more easily and deeper into the lungs.

Mesothelioma development tests in rats was demonstrated after intra-pleural inoculation of phosphorylated  chrysotile  fibers. It has been suggested that in humans, transport of fibers to the pleura   is
critical   to   the   pathogenesis of mesothelioma. Experimental   research suggests that asbestos   is  a   carcinogen   mesothelioma   ocoorendo   in   stages.   The molecular mechanisms underlying   the   malignant   transformation   of   normal mesothelial cells by asbestos fibers remain unclear despite the demonstration of its oncogenic capacity.
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Mesothelioma Cancer (Clinical Trials, Treatment, Stages and Pathophysiology)